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1 Rademaker, M. (2001) Do Women Have More Adverse Drug Reactions? American Journal of Clinical Dermatology 2 (6): 340-351

2 Maya Dusenbury (2017) Doing Harm: The Truth About How Bad Medicine and Lazy Science Leave Women Dismissed, Misdiagnosed, and Sick. Harper One And references therein –except available at: Accessed March 2019

3 Facts about endometriosis. Available at Accessed March 2019

4 Ballard et al (2006) What’s the delay? A qualitative study of women’s experiences of reaching a diagnosis of endometriosis Fertility and Sterility 86 (5) 1296-1301. And references therein.

5 Hoffmann, D. E., & Tarzian, A. J. (2001). The Girl Who Cried Pain: A Bias against Women in the Treatment of Pain. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 28(4): 13–27.

6 Women’s College Hospital Foundation, The Health Gap facts. Available at Accessed March 2019

7 Smylie, J., Daoud, N., O’Brien, K., & Yu, M. (forthcoming). Long distance deliveries: Disparities in proximal access to maternity services for Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal women in Canada. Toronto, ON: Centre for Research on Inner City Health, Manuscript in preparation. (personal communication)

8 Government of Canada, Cervical Cancer. Available at Accessed March 2019

9 Canada Health Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. C-6. (2012). Available at Accessed March 2019

10 Statistics Canada 2016 census data. Available here. Accessed April 2019

11 Statistics Canada (2013) Mental and substance use disorders in Canada. 82-624-X. Available from Accessed April 2019

12 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Unintended pregnancies. Available at Accessed April 2019

13 Herd, P., Higgins, J., Sicinski, K., & Merkurieva, I. The Implications of Unintended Pregnancies for Mental Health in Later Life. American journal of public health, 106(3) 2016, pp. 421-9.

14 Statistics Canada 2016 census data

15 Statistics Canada (2011) Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report Available from Accessed April 2019

16 BC Women’s Hopsital + Health Centre and BC Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health (2004) Advancing the Health of Girls and Women in British Columbia: A Provincial Women’s Health Strategy

17 Pederson, A. Lan Fang, M., Boyle, E., Askwith, B., Murrary, A.J. and Lindsay-Baugh, A. (2014) Addressing Newcomer Immigrant Women’s Health Needs and Experiences in the Context of Settlement in British Columbia. Final Report. BC Women’s Hospital and Health Centre.

18 Pederson et al (2014) – quote on page 47

19 Pederson et al (2014) – quote on page 49

20 Carter, A., Greene, S., Nicholson, V., O’Brien, N., Dahlby, J., de Pokomandy, A., Loutfy, M.R., Kaida, A. and CHIWOS Research Team (2016) ‘It’s a very isolating world’: the journey to HIV care for women living with HIV in British Columbia, Canada. Gender, Place & Culture, 23(7), pp.941-954.

21 Quote pulled directly from Carter et al (2016) as above

22 Data and quotes, unless otherwise stated, from The Birth Place Lab (2019) Changing Childbirth in BC. A Perinatal Services BC report.

23 Kornelsen, Jude, and Stefan Grzybowski. (2004) “The Costs of Separation: The birth experiences of women in isolated and remote communities in British Columbia.” Canadian Woman Studies 24.1

24 There are mechanisms for travel, accommodation and food compensation for status Indigenous communities but many participants in Kornelsen and Grybowski (2004) and (2006) research notes incidental costs that incurred such as phone cards for calling home, parking, costs for additional children or caring responsibility alternatives back home

25 Kornelsen, Jude, and Stefan Grzybowski. (2006)”The reality of resistance: the experiences of rural parturient women.” Journal of midwifery & women’s health 51.4 (2006): 260-265

26 British Columbia’s Women’s Hospital and Health Centre Society, Consultation Working Group (1995) The Challenges Ahead for Women’s Health. BC: British Columbia’s Women’s Hospital and Health Centre Society

27 Mascarenhas, A., Moore, J. E., Tricco, A. C., Hamid, J., Daly, C., Bain, J., … Straus, S. E. (2017). Perceptions and Experiences of a Gender Gap at a Canadian Research Institute and Potential Strategies to Mitigate this Gap: A Sequential Mixed-Methods Study. CMAJ Open, 5(1), E144–E151.

28 Data referenced Gelb, K., Reid, T., and Brotto, L.A. (2018) British Columbia’s Women’s Health Research Agenda. Vancouver, BC: Women’s Health Research Institute

29 Conference Board of Canada. Gender Wage Gap, 2017. Available from Accessed March 2019